Effects of cavitation:

The operating principle of control is based on the creation of high pressures by means of cavitation. This micro-cavitation does not affect other parts, as long as installed in accordance with the installation instructions.

The transmitter produces such a high power that gas bubbles are formed between the water molecules, so-called cavitation. When the gas bubbles reach a critical size, they implode, resulting in micro-pressure waves of up to about 2000 atmospheres.
These pressure waves run into the water and, depending on the distance to the transmitter, have various effects on micro-organisms.
At a relatively short distance from the transmitter, the membranes of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and viruses will rupture and kill the organisms. This effect decreases at greater distances. Vacuoles from single-cell organisms such as floating algae will be damaged to a greater extent as a result of these pressure waves.

More information about the effects on various organisms can be found in the literature study of Dhr. Laurens Vehmeijer, called “ultrasound as a sterilization method”. ( Original Dutch version or Partly translated Englisch )

FOULING

A special application is the “expelling” of larvae of barnacles or other shellfish from all kind of underwater parts, such as hulls from ships.
Operation is further explained under the chapter Antifouling

Our ultrasonic units (USAF) are extensively tested by the US Navy for effects on turtles and marine mammals because they communicate with ultrasound. No adverse effects on turtles and marine mammals have been found.